• Novel biocatalytic esterification reactions on fatty acids

    The above reaction accelerated upon increase of temperature from 37 °C to 45 °C with conversion of about 90 % of sorbitol into its 1(6) - monostearate after which there was a gradual decline (Fig. 1). It is noteworthy to mention that the reaction time for maximum conversion of

  • Anhydride Reactions - LHS AP Chemistry

    The term basic anhydride, refers the idea that these metal oxides are, bases with a water removed. For example, calcium oxide (CaO) is simply calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2) with one H 2 O removed from the formula. There are two reactions we will focus on: a basic anhydride's reaction with an acid and its reaction with water.

  • Succinic anhydride ≥99% (GC) | Sigma-Aldrich

    The molecule of succinic anhydride consists of 3, 4, and 5 triangles and each triangle is a part of three carbon molecules forming a zigzag structure. Application Succinic anhydride was used in the preparation of covalently cross-linked oxidized-alginate/N-succi nyl-chitosan hydrogels, as injectable systems towards tissue engineering.

  • Sorbitol Production | Air Liquide

    Sorbitol Production is a technology for creating the sugar alcohol sorbitol through the batchwise hydrogenation of aqueous glucose solution. Through this reliable process, Air Liquide Engineering & Construction enables its clients to produce technical, food or pharmaceutical grade sorbitol.

  • Process for Preparing Nonionic Surfactant Sorbitan Fatty Acid ...

    The purpose of this work was to determine the course of the esterification reaction of hexitols and a long chain length fatty acid at different temperatures. Sorbitol esters of lauric acid were prepared by the esterification of sorbitol and lauric acid (molar ratio, 1:1) in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid as a catalyst.

  • Polyester Polyols: Synthesis and Characterization of ...

    Polyester Polyols: Synthesis and Characterization of Diethylene Glycol Terephthalate Oligomers OLEG KADKIN,1 KAROL OSAJDA,1,2 PIOTR KASZYNSKI,1 THOMAS A. BARBER3 1Organic Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Box 1822 Station B,

  • dades - organicchem.org

    The Diels-Alder reaction is a concerted cycloaddition reaction between a conjugated diene and an alkene, also referred to as a "dienophile". In its simpliest example, the Diels-Alder reaction occurs between 1,3-butadiene and ethylene to form cyclohexene.

  • 6-Synthesis and Characterisation of Sorbitol

    Synthesis and Characterisation of Sorbitol Based Copolyesters for Biomedical Applications 508 metabolized to carbon dioxide [20, 21] and this CO2 is needed by the microorganism for the production of another monomer succinic acid which is also an intermediate in citric acid cycle and one of the fermentation end-products of anaerobic mechanism [22]

  • SORBITAN OLEATE - Chemicalland21.com

    The term sorbitan describes the anhydride form of sorbitol, whose fatty acids are lipophilic whereas sorbitol body is hydrophilic. This bifunctionality in one molecule provides the basic properties useful in cleaners, detergents, polymer additives, and textile industry as emulsifiers, wetting agents, and viscosity modifiers.


    a dienophile in Diels-Alder reaction. Diethyl maleate is manufactured by reacting maleic anhydride with ethanol in the presence of catalytic quantities of sulphuric acid (Makowka et al 1989). As esterification process involves hazardous mineral acids, ecofriendly solid acid catalysts could be a convenient alternative.

  • Intro to Organic Chemistry: Carboxylic Acids; Carboxylic ...

    1. reaction of a carboxylic acid with an amine + heat creates an ammonium salt which will yield an amide + H2O 2. reaction of an anhydride with an amine creates an amide and carboxylic acid byproduct (which then further neutralizes to an ammonium salt in the presence of a second mole of amine ).


    were prepared by lipase catalyzed controlled esterification reaction between sorbitol and fatty acids. In this study, enzymatic reaction was performed in organic solvent mixtures of pure DMSO and Tert. Butanol in 80:20 ratio in percentage(v/v).The enzymatic synthesis was carried out by the reaction of sorbitol and various fatty acids like oleic,

  • Manufacture of fatty acid esters of sorbitan as surfactants ...

    A method of making fatty acid esters of sorbitan which comprises reacting the fatty acid directly with sorbitol in the presence of a catalyst system which comprises a phosphorus oxyacid, including a reducing phosphorus oxyacid, and an alkali or alkali earth metal strong base in a molar ratio of acid to base of from 0.9:1 to 1.7:1 and at a ...

  • Changzhou ComWin Fine Chemicals Co.,Ltd. is a member of ...

    ComWin Fine Chemicals, founded in 2003, is located in Changzhou City, a beautiful historical and cultural city with a thousand years' history. Its manufacturing facility is situated in Changzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Zone.

  • Sorbitol side effects and allergic reactions

    A few times, when I had the reaction, I doubted myself because I couldn't find a food that I had eaten to explain the symptoms. Then, I started reading labels on my homeopathic pellets and other health supplements. Yep, sorbitol. I avoid it like the plague now. The Main Side Effects or Allergic Reactions I Experienced from Sorbitol Include:


    It is used for vitamin-C fermentation. It is used as a excipient and intravenous osmotic diuretic in pharmaceutical fields. It is also used in the manufacture of polyethers for polyurethanes and surfactants. The term sorbitan describes the anhydride form of sorbitol, whose fatty acids are lipophilic whereas sorbitol body is hydrophilic.

  • Sorbitan | definition of sorbitan by Medical dictionary

    sorbitan: ( sōr'bi-tan ), Sorbitol or sorbose and related compounds in ester combination with fatty acids and with short oligo (ethylene oxide) side chains and an oleate terminus to form detergents such as polysorbate 80.

  • Sorbitol dehydrogenase - Wikipedia

    Sorbitol dehydrogenase (or SDH) is a cytosolic enzyme.In humans this protein is encoded by the SORD gene.. Sorbitol dehydrogenase is an enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism converting sorbitol, the sugar alcohol form of glucose, into fructose.

  • Solvent-Free Polymerization of Citric Acid and D-Sorbitol

    anhydride and then react with the alcohol (Scheme 1, top reaction).2 Copolyesters of citric acid and 1,2,6-hexane triol have also been cited as possible candidates for drug delivery.21–23 The reaction of citric acid and D-sorbitol is expected to run without catalysis, forming the citrate sorbitol ester.9 The well-precedented an-

  • Sorbitol | chemical compound | Britannica.com

    Other articles where Sorbitol is discussed: carbohydrate: Chemical reactions: …carbon of d-glucose is called sorbitol (d-glucitol). d-Glucitol also is formed when l-sorbose is reduced. The reduction of mannose results in mannitol, that of galactose in dulcitol.

  • Sorbitol Side Effects: Common, Severe, Long Term - Drugs.com

    Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

  • Preparation of Sorbitan Stearate - IIIS

    common reaction vessel that is equipped with a stirrer, a heating jacket, a baffle, an inert gas inlet, a thermometer and a condenser-equipped moisture separator. Sorbitol or sorbitol intramolecular condensates, fatty acids, and catalysts are fed to the reaction vessel and are mixed and stirred [7, 13].

  • FDA Amends Regulations for Sorbitol Anhydride Esters

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of sorbitol anhydride esters, an emulsifier blend of sorbitan monostearate, polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate (polysorbate 60) and polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (polysorbate 20) as an anticorrosive agent in boilers where steam may contact food.

  • Method for the direct esterification of sorbitol with fatty ...

    A process for preparing a mixture of sorbitol fatty acid esters and sorbitol anhydride fatty acid esters comprising the step of: reacting a reaction mixture which is essentially free from water, comprising sorbitol and at least one free fatty acid, wherein the molar ratio of free fatty acid to sorbitol is at least 7:1, at a temperature and for ...

  • Monitoring the esterification of sorbitol and fatty acids by ...

    These compounds are prepared by heating sorbitol and fatty acids at 160 in the presence of a catalyst such as p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). Two of the known polyols other than sorbitol itself are its anhydride, 1,4-sorbitan (1,4- * Corresponding author. 0021-9673/95/$09.50 O 1995 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • Sorbitol - Wikipedia

    Sorbitol may be synthesised via a glucose reduction reaction in which the converted aldehyde group is converted into a hydroxyl group. The reaction requires NADH and is catalyzed by aldose reductase. Glucose reduction is the first step of the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism, and is implicated in multiple diabetic complications.

  • Anhydride Monomers - Monomers | Sigma-Aldrich

    Anhydride Monomers Anhydrides are very versatile as they can undergo condensation reactions to give polyesters, -imides, -ester-amides, and -ester-imides. Unsaturated anhydrides undergo additional polymerization, usually with styrene, acrylics, and vinyl ethers.


    Sorbitol is fermented in good yields to sorbose by some of the members of the Acetobacter species (1, 2). Resting cells of Acetobacter suboxydans may, in the absence of a source of nitrogen, oxidize sorbitol with the con- sumption of over 4 atoms of oxygen per molecule of substrate (3, 4).

  • Reaction between drug substances and pharmaceutical ...

    Reaction between drug substances and pharmaceutical excipients: formation of esters between cetirizine and polyols. Yu H(1), Cornett C, Larsen J, Hansen SH. Author information: (1)College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, People's Republic of China.

  • Sorbitol | C6H14O6 | ChemSpider

    The food industry uses D-sorbitol as an additive in the form of a sweetener, humectant, emulsifier, thickener, or dietary supplement. D-Sorbitol has also been found in cosmetics, paper, and pharmaceuticals. Naturally, D-sorbitol occurs widely in plants via photosynthesis, ranging from algae to higher order fruits of the family Rosaceae.

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